Question: What are the themes that can be covered by collective bargaining? Another topic of negotiation is seniority, but it is less important in India than in Western countries. But in India, layoffs, cuts, layoffs, rationalizations and participation in trade union activities have been important issues for collective bargaining. In many countries, the wages of some workers are mainly determined by a collective agreement (collective bargaining), while the others are not (individual negotiations). This can lead to injustice or injustice between the two groups of workers, depending on what collective bargaining actually does. The empirical is the fact that some workers are covered by collective agreements, while others do not allow to compare the level and distribution of wages between workers in different systems of collective agreements, without having to rely on country comparisons that could be influenced by aspects other than collective bargaining. Rating: statistically significant at levels 1, 5 and 10% respectively. To assess the statistical importance of collective bargaining agencies as a whole, the focus should be on the F test, which tests the common meaning of all coefficients on interactions with hourly work productivity of minutes. Standard errors (in parentheses) are grouped at the country level. However, the existence of freedom of association does not necessarily mean that unions are automatically recognized for bargaining purposes.

In particular, in systems where there are a large number of unions, pre-defined objective criteria are needed within the framework of the labour relations system to decide when and how a union should be recognized for collective bargaining. [103] Hijzen, A., P. Martins and J. Parlevliet (2019), « Frontal assault versus incremental change: A comparison of collective bargaining in Portugal and the Netherlands, » IZA Journal of Labor Policy, Vol. 9/1, doi.org/10.2478/izajolp-2019-0008. [12] Aidt, T. and Z. Tzannatos (2002), unions and collective bargaining: economic impact in a global environment, The World Bank, Washington, DC.

Behaviouralists have made a good distinction between « distribution negotiations » and « inclusive negotiations. » The first is the cake-sharing process, which represents what has been produced by the joint efforts of management and labour. Therefore, the most important challenge for social partners and governments is to adapt collective bargaining systems to use them to achieve better results in terms of employment, job quality and inclusion, while companies remain able to adapt the rules to their own realities. The exact nature of this challenge and how it will be addressed will vary from country to country and will depend to a large extent on existing national collective bargaining traditions.