INDCs become NDCs – national contributions – as soon as a country formally accedes to the agreement. There are no specific requirements on how or to what extent countries should reduce emissions, but there were political expectations about the nature and rigour of different countries` targets. As a result, national plans are very different in scale and ambition and largely reflect each country`s capabilities, level of development and contribution to emissions over time. For example, China has committed to leveling its CO2 emissions by 2030 at the latest and reducing CO2 emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 60-65% by 2030 compared to their 2005 level. India has set a target of reducing emissions intensity by 33-35% compared to 2005 by 2030 and producing 40% of its electricity from non-fossil sources. A study published in 2018 reports a threshold where temperatures could rise to 4 or 5 degrees above the pre-industrial level (ambiguous expression, continuity would be « 4-5 °C »), thanks to self-concretizing feedbacks in the climate system, indicating that this threshold is below the 2 degree target set in the Paris Climate Agreement. Study author Katherine Richardson points out, « We find that, in its history, the Earth has never had a near-stable state about 2°C warmer than pre-industrial and we suggest that there is a considerable risk that the system itself, because of all these other processes, will want, » even if we stop emissions. This doesn`t just mean reducing emissions, but much more. [96] When the agreement was reached on the 5th.